Betty Neuman developed the Neuman System Model, publishing her theory in the early 1970s. Her theory treats the individual as a whole in their environment. The individual is surrounded by lines of defense, one normal and one flexible that protect them from stressors. These stressors can be positive, negative, internal or external. Actions in nursing care help to revise, temporarily or permanently, the interaction of the individual with those stressors. Neuman relates the lines of defense to primary, secondary and tertiary medical care. Neuman states that primary care protects the normal line of defense, and strengthens the flexible line of defense. Secondary care strengthens the internal lines of defense and helps increase resistance of the lines. Tertiary care is required to stabilize the lines and readapt them (Nursing Theories, 2012, para. 3). A community nursing center was established in Chester, PA to meet needs in the needs of the elderly, underserved population in the area. The center employed the Neuman model in health promotion, patient care and patient education. Activities of daily living, such as bathing and organizing medications, were address in the homes to help some seniors maintain their independence. Home visits were also done to monitor health problems and evaluate safety in the home. Early cancer detection, and support for those with psychiatric, drug and alcohol issues were addressed at the center. Additionally, health assessments were offered, or regular vital sign checks, as well as referrals to physicians’ offices. Individual instruction was given on nutrition, medication, and activities. Group exercise and dance classes were offered, as well as game such as nutrition bingo. Individual teaching was done on medications and certain health conditions. Group education was done on topics such as diabetes, urinary incontinence and loneliness (Newman, 2005, p.222). The community nursing center “tracked client care and responses to preventive services and provided predictive data to help the nurse managers make informed decisions and support clients as they make health care decisions” (Newman, 2005, p.222). The admission data collected at the center was used to measure the client potential or actual response to potential or actual stressors. It looked at health history to identify physiological stressors like cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, or liver for instance (Newman, 2005, p.223). Then the program was tailored for each individual to assess diagnose and plan for each patient. Interventions that followed were aimed at maintaining the seniors’ lines of defense. Nursing Theories. (2012, January 28). Retrieved November 30, 2017, from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/neuman.html Newman, D. M. (2005). A COMMUNITY NURSING CENTER for the HEALTH PROMOTION of Senior Citizens Based on the Neuman Systems Model. Nursing Education Perspective, 26(4), 221-223.
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