P3. Consider an application that transmits data at a steady rate (for example, the sender generates an N-bit unit of data every k time units, where k is small and fixed). Also, when such an application starts, it will continue running for a relatively long period of time. Answer the following questions, briefly justifying your answer: a. Would a packet-switched network or a circuit-switched network be more appropriate for this application? Why?
b. Suppose that a packet-switched network is used and the only traffic in this network comes from such applications as described above. Furthermore, assume that the sum of the application data rates is less than the capacities of each and every link. Is some form of congestion control needed? Why?
P2. Consider the circuit-switched network in Figure 1.13. Recall that there are 4 circuits on each link. Label the four switches A, B, C and D, going in the clockwise direction. a. What is the maximum number of simultaneous connections that can be in progress at any one time in this network?
b. Suppose that all connections are between switches A and C. What is the maximum number of simultaneous connections that can be in progress?
c. Suppose we want to make four connections between switches A and C, and another four connections between switches B and D. Can we route these calls through the four links to accommodate all eight connections?
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P3. Perform a Traceroute between source and destination on the same continent at three different hours of the day. a. Find the average and standard deviation of the round-trip delays at each of the three hours.
b. Find the number of routers in the path at each of the three hours. Did the paths change during any of the hours?
c. Try to identify the number of ISP networks that the Traceroute packets pass through from source to destination. Routers with similar names and/or similar IP addresses should be considered as part of the same ISP. In your experiments, do the largest delays occur at the peering interfaces between adjacent ISPs?
d. Repeat the above for a source and destination on different continents. Compare the intra-continent and inter-continent results.
P4,True or false?
a. A user requests a Web page that consists of some text and three images. For this page, the client will send one request message and receive four response messages.
b. Two distinct Web pages (for example, www.mit.edu/research.html and www.mit.edu/students.html) can be sent over the same persistent connection.
c. With nonpersistent connections between browser and origin server, it is possible for a single TCP segment to carry two distinct HTTP request messages.
d. The Date: header in the HTTP response message indicates when the object in the response was last modified.
e HTTP response messages never have an empty message body.