Final Research Project – In this paper, you would be combining the two previously written papers – the literature review and the method papers, and you will be incorporating two additional sections, the results and discussion sections. In this paper, you will present the results and discuss implications of the study. Please read the separate handout for the grading criteria.
Final Research Report
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This third and final paper is a summative assignment, which brings together previously submitted papers plus two new sections – results and discussion sections, where the data gathered from the project are analyzed, presented, and implications discussed. The assignment should demonstrate your implementation of single systems project as well as research principles, and the use of statistics to demonstrate the outcomes of the project. Changes from the earlier revisions should be updated in this paper. Please use the prescribed headings and subheadings for this final paper. The length should be no more than 18 pages excluding the abstract, references, appendices, cover page, and the reaction paper. The assessment criteria are as follows:
The abstract should identify the purpose of the research, a brief description of the methodology, research design, and data collection procedures used in the study, the results, and the implications of the study. The abstract should read no longer than 120 words. Please indicate the number of words. There will be a 3-point deduction if the number of words is not included. The abstract should be consistent with APA 6th edition formatting.
Literature Review (40)
Please highlight the changes in BOLD that you have made from the earlier submissions for the literature review and the method section. If changes are not made in BOLD, your instructor will assume that there are NO changes.
- Introduction – Have an introductory paragraph to provide an overview of the literature review, for example, you could discuss the problem or issue that is focus of the intervention. You may also discuss the macro perspective or significance of the issue, i.e., number of people that are affected by the problem, effects of the problem on the client’s well being, while highlighting the need for the intervention. Discuss the importance of your research topic. Develop these ideas further in subsequent paragraphs. What are the controversies in the field? Make clear which studies fall on either side of the controversy. If there are no controversies, you should describe the research themes in your area of research. (5 points)
- Evidence Based Practices – Survey, discuss, and analyze the evidence based interventions and its effect on the identified behavior. You should make a direct connection of the research literature to the proposed intervention and outcome measures. (10 points)
- Critical Analysis & Synthesis – As you survey and analyze the research literature, be sure to integrate, synthesize and critically evaluate the current literature. What are the gaps in the research and how will your research contribute to the conceptual and clinical literature? What is the importance of your research question? Your research focus should be justified from a theoretical and clinical perspective. (10 points)
- Theory & Practice Model – What is the specific theory that your intervention uses? What specific practice model guides the selection of the a) assessment procedures and intervention; b) your dependent variables? Demonstrate the relationship of the theory to assessment procedures and intervention steps. How does the theory help us understand your client’s problem? Analyze the problem using the tenets of the theory by integrating specific concepts of the theory into your explanation. (10 points)
- Research Question & Hypothesis – Identify your research question (based on the protocol that we had discussed in class), and hypothesis/hypothesis in your concluding paragraph. (5 points)
Please highlight the changes in BOLD that you have made. Update the procedures of the study.
1. Issue & Person Description – Situate the person in the environment by providing a description of yourself (for those who are doing the behavior mod project) or the client, focusing more on the social history of the issue. Include demographic information that will enhance our understanding of the issue. Include any salient characteristics (e.g. gender, diagnosis, ethnicity, etc.) that you believe to be related to the assessment of the problem. What maintains the problem? How have you or your client(s) dealt with the problem? What is the history of the problem and your assessment of the causes of problem? How did you arrive at these conclusions? (5)
2. Dependent Variables – What behaviors or thoughts were targeted? How are these behaviors operationalized and measured? Explain the rationale for the measurement of the dependent variable(s). How are these targeting behaviors sampled? What other instruments were (or will be) used in the study? You are strongly encouraged to develop an individual rating scale for the study. Please attach this to the appendix of the paper. Describe the technical properties of the instruments that you are using for the study. Explain the rationale for the use of the instruments. What social validity measures would you identify that will support the gains made from the study? Also attach in the appendices any work in progress. Bonus points may be awarded for effort and creativity in this section. (5)
3. Research Design – Identify the research design of the study (e.g. ABA, multiple baseline design, ABABC, alternating treatment design, hybrid designs, etc.) and the rationale for its use. Why was the design appropriate for the study? What determined the choice of this design? You may change the design after the proposal presentation and if you believe more clinical gains can be leveraged as a result of a change of research designs. You are strongly encourage to use hybrid designs which allow for more flexibility in practice (5)
4. Description of Intervention – You should provide a description of the intervention(s) that were implemented. Describe each phase of the research design, duration and length. The interventions should be sufficiently detailed to allow another researcher to replicate your study. For example, describe the amount and duration of the intervention, what did you do to sustain your own (or your client’s) involvement and to ensure that the procedures were carried out uniformly? While it is assumed that there will be some variation in the procedures because of the life’s unpredictability, you should make an effort to implement the procedures consistently within and between phases. You may also attach forms and/or logs that were designed for the study. NOTE: There may have been changes in procedures between the procedures in the method paper and this final one. Reflect the up-to-date changes in this section and reflect them in BOLD. (5)
5. Anticipated Problems and Motivation – What problems do you anticipate in the study or have experienced while implementing the SSD research? How have you dealt with them or plan to deal with them? How did the procedures of the study address motivation issues? Describe and discuss how you have considered specific procedures (e.g. data collection procedures, definition of DV, frequency of data, research designs) or alternate ways that are likely to enhance the likelihood of SSD implementation and sustained involvement of the client in your research project over a period of time. In summary, describe the motivational elements in your study. (5)
6. Control of variables – What extraneous variables did you attempt to control for in the study? How were these controls instituted? How did you control for reactivity? Explain the procedures, which controlled for alternative explanations. Comment on internal validity issues as it relates to the dependent variables. How did you deal with the changing circumstances in your life (or your client’s) in terms of the proposed research design and data collection procedures? How did, if any, unpredictable episodes or situations compromise the validity of the study? (5)
7. Ethical issues – What ethical issues were/will be considered during the implementation phase of the study? Identify any three ethical issues (either from your perspective, your client’s or both) that are specific to this particular research study. Do not discuss general research ethical issues (e.g. confidentiality) but issues related to the procedural implementation of single systems design. How did you address these issues? (5)
In this section, you will present the data collected and describe the results of the research. How did the independent variable(s) affect the dependent variable(s)? Describe the outcomes of the study by performing a visual, statistical, and descriptive analysis of the data.
- Descriptive statistics – Use descriptive statistics to summarize the data from the different phases of the study. Where possible, summarize the data in a table. Of the three measures of central tendency, which particular statistic best represents your data? Why did you think this statistic is an appropriate representation? 10
- Visual analyses – Present the data using line graphs. Your graphs should be completely labeled and should be drawn according to the relevant conventions (e.g. vertical axes for the dependent measure; horizontal axes for time). You are welcome to incorporate tables, bar graphs, and pie charts to illustrate the changes in the data. Based on the visual data you should make a conclusion on whether the problem improved, deteriorated or remained stable. Discuss the trend, stability, and the level of data in each phase. You may put the graphs in the appendix or in the text. You will be required to use WORD/EXCEL specific program to draw your graphs. 10
- Line Graph – Presents data on line graph, with axes clearly labeled. Title of heading and the legend (if any) should be clearly labeled. Please use the SSD graph conventions, as discussed in class. 15
You may sequence the content, i.e., visual, statistical, and descriptive analyses in a manner that suits the narrative and the purposes of the presentation.
In this section, you analyze the results based on the conceptual research discussed in the literature review section. You also discuss implications and consider future research ideas based on the data of this study. You would be expected to address the social impact of your study and consider issues of sustainability.
1. Important Results & Connections to Previous Research – Summarize the important results of your study in the first paragraph. Were the study’s hypotheses supported? What findings were expected and/or surprising? How do these findings further the discussion of theoretical issues that were discussed in the literature review? Extrapolate these conceptual issues based on your understanding of the results. 10
2. Social Validity & Sustainability – What is the practical significance of the study to the participant and those around him/her? What did the client (and/or yourself) say think about the intervention and its impact? What did the significant others and/or family members say about the intervention and its impact? Summarize the qualitative data from your intervention. Do you think that the gains will be generalized and maintained after the intervention period? Please address issues of sustainability in this section. 10
3. Successes of & Limitations of the Study – Analyze the reasons for the successes and the failures of the study. What worked and what didn’t? If you worked with a client for the project, how did you explain the results of the study to your client? Did you think the study was effective? Explain whether you used the data was used to advocate for policy change, if any 5
4. Future Research – Based on the results of the study, what should future research focus on? Explain how future research could contribute to knowledge development based on your research experience of the topic. How should future research be conducted on this topic? 5
5. Mixed Methods Research – If you had to collect data on the same research question using a mixed methods methodology, how would you implement the study? Which particular model (as described by Creswell) would you use for your mixed methods study? Why? Which specific qualitative method or methods would you use and why? Briefly describe the sequence and procedures of the mixed methods research. 20
Reaction paper (10 points)
Write a one or two page reaction paper and place this in the appendix. You may use single or double line spacing, depending on the length of the reaction paper. In the paper, document your learning experiences, both good and bad. If you had to redo this assignment again, what would you do differently? How could your learning for this assignment be supported and enhanced? Please be honest in your assessment of the learning experiences of this assignment.
How did this assignment and work related to this course address two of the following advanced practice behaviors:
- Integrates current research and evolving standards into ethical professional practice in decision making
- Applies quantitative, qualitative, and mixed method research methodologies to evaluate practice effectiveness and outcomes 10
Presentation (10 points)
The literature review was integrated, synthesized, and clear. The paper is well written. Ideas are comprehensive, concise, and coherent. Writing is in keeping with the language of an APA research report. There should be minimal or no typographical or grammatical errors in the paper. The write up and the conduct of the study reflect effort and attention to detail.
APA Formatting (10 points)
All research cited in the paper should appear in the reference list. The paper is written in APA format. There will be a deduction of 1 point for every APA error. Repetitions of APA errors will be counted. Deduction may exceed 10 points for APA errors and will not exceed 50 points. Include the relevant appendices. Follows instructions in the handout. The paper must be typed and references in the text and the reference page should be in APA format.